Garcinia gummi-gutta  

Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robs.

Family       : Clusiaceae

Common Name : കൊടംപുളി (Mal)

: Cambodge Tree (Eng)

IUCN Status : Least concern (LC) -

Cambodge Tree is an evergreen, small or medium-sized understorey tree, about 70 cm bole diameter, with a rounded crown and horizontal or drooping branches. The bark is dark and smooth. Leaves are opposite, stalked, dark green, shining, elliptic to obovate, hairless. Flowers are borne in clusters of 4-20, are usually red, but some trees have yellow ones. Petals are normally 4, each about 1.2 cm wide 1.1 cm long, anthers attached to a pistillode with a non-functional stigma. Female flowers occur singly or in clusters of up to 4. The stigmatic surface is normally enlarged, and there is no style. Female flowers have rudimentary and non- functional staminodes. Neither male nor female flowers produce nectar. Fruit is a green, ovoid berry, with 6-8 grooves, 5 cm in diameter, yellow or red when ripe. Seed 6-8, smooth, large, about 5 cm long and 2 cm wide surrounded by a succulent aril. 

Evergreen trees, to 20 m high; branchlets terete, glabrous, drooping. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, 7-15 x 2-8 cm, elliptic or elliptic-oblanceolate or lanceolate, base cuneate, or attenuate, apex acute or shortly obtusely acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, shining; lateral 10-16 pairs, pinnate, slender, arched towards the margin forming intramarginal nerve, intercostae faint; petiole 5-20 mm long, stout, ligulate process at the base small. Flowers polygamodioecious, yellowish-white. Male flowers: 3-5 in short axillary fascicles; pedicels 7-15 mm long, thickened towards tip, often reflexed; sepals 4, fleshy with membranous margin, coriaceous, ovate or obovate, outer 2 smaller than inner; petals 4, twice as long as the petals, concave with narrow membranous margin; stamens 10-20 or more, inserted on a short convex receptacle, monadelphous, forming a globular head; anthers ca. 0.5 mm long; rudimentary pistil absent or minute. Female flowers: 1-3 in terminal and axillary fascicles, larger than male flowers; pedicels 4-6 mm long; sepals and petals as in male; staminodes 10-20, filaments unequal, connate at base in a ring around the ovary or grouped in unequal bundles; ovary globular, 8-10 locular; ovule one in each locule; stigmatic rays 8-10, spreading, free nearly to the base, margin tuberculate. Fruit a berry, ovoid to subglobose, 4-5 cm diameter, yellow or red, 8-10 grooved, grooves ending about the middle, pericarp very thick, fleshy; seeds 6-8, ovoid, compressed, pale brown, veined; aril succulent, white or red.

Use :Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, obesity, hypercholestremia, diarrhea, colic, ulcers, inflammations and hyperperspiration. Useful parts are leaves and dried fruits.

Distribution : South India and Sri Lanka

Flowering & Fruiting : January-September