Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.
Family : Combretaceae
Common Name : നീർമരുത് (Mal)
In Indian mythology, Arjun is supposed to be Sita's favourite tree. Native to India, the tree attracts lot of attention because of its association with mythology and its many uses. Arjuna is a large, evergreen tree, with a spreading crown and drooping branches. Grows up to 25 m height, and the bark is grey and smooth. Leaves are sub-opposite, 5-14 × 2-4.5 cm in size, oblong or elliptic oblong. Flowers small, white, and occur on long hanging recemes. Fruit is 2.3-3.5 cm long, fibrous woody, glabrous and has five hard wings, striated with numerous curved veins.
Evergreen trees, to 30 m, bole often buttressed; bark surface pinkish-grey, smooth, flaking off in thin layers; branchlets drooping. Leaves simple, opposite to alternate, 7.5-16 x 3.7-8.5 cm, oblong, elliptic, oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate, base round, obtuse or cordate, apex obtuse or round, margin crenulate or entire, 2 glands at the base on the lower side; lateral nerves 10-17 pairs, pinnate, arched towards the margin, intercostae reticulate, prominent; petiole 5-15 mm long, stout. Flowers bisexual, dull yellow, 2-3 mm across, in short axillary spikes. Calyx tube 0.5-2 x 1-1.5 mm, constricted above the ovary, pubescent; lobes 5, 1.5 mm, triangular, glabrous; disc 5-lobed, pilose. Petals 0. Stamens 10, in 2 rows; filaments 3-4 mm, subulate, exserted; anthers small. Ovary ovoid, 1.5 mm, inferior, pubescent, 1-celled; ovules 2 or 3, pendulous; style subulate, small. Fruit a drupe, 6 x 3 cm, oblong, 5-7 winged; wings equal, lines on the wings oblique and curving upwards, apex notched; seed one
Use: Every part of the tree has useful medicinal properties. Arjun holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Yunani Systems of medicine. According to Ayurveda it is alexiteric, styptic, tonic, anthelmintic, and useful in fractures, uclers, heart diseases, biliousness, urinary discharges, asthma, tumours, leucoderma, anaemia, excessive prespiration etc. According to Yunani system of medicine, it is used both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges.
Distribution : India and Sri Lanka
Flowering & Fruiting : November-June